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In a large Dutch oven, bring a large amount of lightly salted water to boiling. Wash artichokes; trim stems and remove dark outer leaves, leaving the pale green and yellow leaves exposed. Cut through the artichoke crosswise, cutting off the pale green and yellow leaves above the base. Use a spoon to scoop out the choke. Cut each artichoke heart in half lengthwise through the stem. Use a vegetable peeler to trim any rough edges from the outside of the artichoke hearts or stems. Place prepared artichoke hearts in a large bowl containing water and lemon juice while preparing the remaining artichokes. Drain and add prepared artichoke hearts to the Dutch oven. Return to a boil. Cover and simmer 10 to 12 minutes or until tender; drain. Toss artichoke hearts with olive oil and sprinkle with 1/8 teaspoon each salt and pepper.
For a gas or charcoal grill, place onion slices and artichoke hearts on the rack of a grill directly over medium heat. Cover and grill artichoke hearts 4 to 6 minutes or until lightly charred, turning once or twice. Grill the onion slices 8 to 12 minutes or until tender and lightly charred, turning once or twice. Chop the onion.
In a medium bowl, combine onion, mayonnaise, Parmesan cheese, lemon peel, 2 tablespoons lemon juice, parsley, and the remainig 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Serve aïoli with artichoke hearts and lemon wedges, if desired.