Pour oil into large heavy skillet or Dutch oven, filling no more than 1/3 full. Heat to 375°F on medium heat. (If using a deep fryer, follow manufacturers' instructions.) Mix malt vinegar and 1/2 teaspoon of the black pepper in a small bowl. Set aside until ready to serve.
While oil is heating, mix flour, 1/2 teaspoon of the salt, 1/2 teaspoon of the remaining black pepper, garlic powder and paprika in large bowl. Whisk in beer and egg. Let batter rest 10 minutes.
Dry cod with paper towels and sprinkle with remaining 1/2 teaspoon salt and remaining 1/2 teaspoon of the black pepper. Working in batches, dip fish into batter; allow excess to drip off. Transfer battered fish directly to hot oil. Fry 4 to 6 minutes or until golden brown and cooked through, turning halfway through. Drain on paper towel-lined plate.
Sprinkle with additional salt, if desired and serve immediately with Peppered Malt Vinegar.