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To prepare stuffing: Heat 2 tablespoons oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onion and shallots. Cover and cook, stirring occasionally, until they begin to lightly color, about 10 minutes. Stir in garlic and cook, stirring, 1 minute more.
Chop oysters and add to the pan. Stir in parsley, basil, oregano and thyme and cook, stirring, 1 minute. Transfer the mixture to a medium bowl and stir in the reserved oyster liquid, breadcrumbs, cheese, 1 tablespoon lemon juice, pepper and Tabasco. Stir in egg; refrigerate while you prepare the artichokes.
To prepare artichokes: Using a sharp knife, trim the top 1/2 inch off each artichoke. Remove the small outer leaves from the stem end and snip any spiky tips from the rest of the outer leaves, using kitchen shears. Cut off the stem.
Bring 8 cups of water to a boil in a pot just large enough to hold all the artichokes in a single layer. Add lemon juice, oil, garlic, oregano, thyme sprigs, 2 teaspoons salt and pepper. Nestle the artichokes into the pot so they are snug. Add more water if the artichokes are not completely submerged. Place a heatproof plate on top of them to keep them submerged.
Return to a boil over high heat and boil until the leaves have softened and become malleable, about 10 minutes. Transfer the artichokes to a colander, leaf-side down, to drain and cool. Reserve 4 cups of the artichoke-cooking liquid.
When the artichokes are cool enough to handle, gently open the center and remove the core of light green leaves; discard. With a teaspoon or melon baller, scrape out the fuzzy “choke” from the center.
Preheat oven to 350°F.
To stuff artichokes: Fill the center of each artichoke with about 1/3 cup stuffing. Then, starting at the bottom outside edge, place about 1 teaspoon of stuffing between each leaf. Continue until all the leaves hold some stuffing and the artichokes have spread out to become quite large.
Bring the artichoke-cooking liquid to a boil in a saucepan. Stand the stuffed artichokes in a pan just large enough to hold all 4 (such as an 8-inch-square baking dish). Pour enough of the boiling liquid into the pan to come about 1 inch up the sides. Tent the pan with foil.
Bake the artichokes until the hearts are tender when pierced through the stuffing with a knife, 45 minutes to 1 hour. Remove foil, increase oven temperature to 425° and continue baking until the stuffing begins to brown, 5 to 10 minutes more.