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At least one day ahead, brine the turkey: Determine how many gallons of cool water you need to fully submerge the turkey. Add 1 cup of kosher salt for each gallon of water. Stir until the salt is thoroughly dissolved. Refrigerate the brining turkey, breast-side down, for 24 to 36 hours. Use a weighted dinner plate to keep the turkey submerged, or turn the bird a few times during brining.
Preheat the oven to 325°F. Rinse the brined turkey under cold water and pat it dry, inside and out, with paper towels. Mix together the softened butter, salt, pepper, thyme, lemon zest and orange zest. Rub the turkey with the seasoned butter, inside and out. Fill the cavity with half of the onions, celery, bay leaves and garlic. Skewer turkey neck skin to back. Tuck drumstick ends under the band of skin across the tail, if available. If there is no band of skin, tie the drumsticks securely to the tail. Twist wing tips under the back. Place the turkey, breast-side up, on a rack in a roasting pan. Pour stock (or broth) into the pan and cover loosely with foil.
Roast the turkey for 45 minutes undisturbed, then remove the foil and roast 1 hour more, spooningjuices over turkey every 20 minutes. After 1 hour and 45 minutes of roasting, cut the string, if using, and spoon juices over turkey. Roast 30 to 60 minutes more or until an instant-read thermometer registers 145-150°F. Spoon juices over bird again. Add orange and lemon halves and the remaining onion, celery, bay leaves and garlic to the pan around the turkey. Roast about 30 minutes more or until the thickest part of the breast reaches aninternal temperature of 165°F and the thigh juices run clear. Remove from the oven and transfer to a serving platter. Tent loosely with aluminum foil, shiny-side down, and let rest 20 to 30 minutes before serving. Remove and discard fruits and vegetables from inside the cavity, if desired. Or, sprinkle the pan-roasted fruits and vegetables with sea salt and serve with the turkey.